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Mars' Small, Stressed Out Moon Is Painfully Relatable In New Photo Bono casino europa moon In new photos from NASA’s Hubble, our favorite frightened moon gloriously photobombs its dad. The images, taken back in May , show Phobos orbiting around Mars.

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Why is Europa considered by many to be the most likely place in the Solar System to find life? Europa is the only other place in the Solar System, please click for source from Earth, for which there is very strong evidence suggesting a liquid water ocean is present today and is in contact with rock.

This is important because life as we know it requires three key basic "ingredients": Europa could have all three of these ingredients. Moreover, and its ocean may have existed for the whole age of the Solar System, giving life a chance the time to begin and evolve there. Atomic particles trapped in Jupiter's powerful magnetic field crash into Europa's icy surface with great energy, producing chemical compounds that could be used by living things. This process provides a possible energy source that mimics the life-supporting energy of Earth's oxygen atmosphere.

Europa's seafloor could be heated by the moon's constant flexing, driving hydrothermal activity similar to undersea volcanoes in Earth's oceans, where some of the most primordial life forms thrive on energy derived from chemical reactions between water and hot rock.

Aside from Earth and Europa, no other body in the solar system shows such strong evidence of all three basic "ingredients. Why is Europa such an attractive place to search for life, and can we tell from orbit or flybys whether there is life there? Europa's high-energy particle environment and the probability of a tidally heated subsurface ocean relatively close to bono casino europa moon surface suggest that the moon could have all the conditions necessary to support life.

From orbit or multiple flybys we can search for molecular signs of life that have been transported from Europa's ocean up to its surface. Such signs of life are called biosignatures, and could include byproducts of bono casino europa moon. The science instruments included on bono casino europa moon future mission to Europa would be designed this web page collect the chemical fingerprints of materials on the moon's icy surface, which researchers will examine for biosignatures.

Scientists around the world are working together to determine what types of biosignatures to look for and how a spacecraft's instruments could best accomplish the task. However, ultimately a future landed spacecraft would be the most suited to directly search for biosignatures on Europa. Is there life on Europa? Given what we know about the ingredients necessary for life, Europa is certainly a very likely place in the Solar System to look for evidence of life.

A future mission to Europa would likely seek such evidence by determining whether the moon harbors an ocean of liquid water below its icy surface.

Such a mission would examine Europa's surface from orbit or during multiple flybys for the chance that we might be able to identify any chemical signs of life that might have been transported from the ocean. Why is there an ocean? Why isn't the whole moon frozen?

Tides on Europa, similar to the tidal interactions between Earth and its moon, cause Europa's ice shell and interior to flex during the course of its hour orbit around Bono casino europa moon. On Io, such tidal flexing leads to intense heating, driving even more volcanic activity than occurs on Earth. The same source of heating can affect Europa's ice shell and possibly its interior.

The heating bono casino europa moon not enough to permit liquid water on the surface, but it bono casino europa moon be sufficient to maintain a liquid water ocean beneath an outer ice shell.

What is tidal heating? A moon that travels in an oval-shaped or elliptical orbit around its parent planet is repeatedly stretched and squeezed with every orbit as it this web page bono casino europa moon to and farther from the parent planet, and this flexing produces heat.

An analogy is the heat produced by repeatedly bending a paper clip north euro cyprus casino and bono casino europa moon. Moon orbits will tend to become less oval-shaped and more circular after magic casino prospect geologically bono casino europa moon period of time, unless they are forced to make promoting online casino money elliptical through gravitational interactions with other satellites.

This is the case with Jupiter's moons Io, Here, and Ganymede today. Tidal heating falls off markedly with distance from the parent planet.

This helps explain why Io is so volcanically very active today, but Europa is cooler, and Ganymede is least active today. Why do we think that Europa has a subsurface ocean? There are several strong pieces of evidence that suggest an ocean exists on Europa:. Is Europa's ocean like Earth's oceans? We don't really know, but we certainly think it is briny, with salts and minerals dissolved in it, like Earth's oceans.

This hypothesis is based on theories for planet formation, which link that Europa's water came from primordial material that is similar to some asteroids. The extraction of water from what is now Europa's rocky mantle would also have extracted minerals and salts from these rocks. Measurements by the Galileo orbiter support the likelihood of a salty ocean, because salt water is the most likely conductive material for generating Europa's induced magnetic field.

How thick are Europa's outer icy shell and its possible ocean? Theory and observation indicate that Europa's icy shell is around 15 to 25 kilometers 10 to 15 miles bono casino europa moon, overlying an ocean approximately kilometers 40 to miles deep. Support for this hypothesis comes from observations of pits, domes, and spots on Europa's surface.

The size and spacing of the features suggests that they bono casino europa moon due to churning within the ice shell, and theory suggests that such churning called convection can occur only if the shell is between greater than about 15 kilometers thick. Measurements of the height of domes on Europa up to a kilometer or just over half a mile high also suggest that the ice shell must be fairly thick for the domes to be so tall.

Some scientists have argued that the ice shell might be thinner, only a few kilometers thick. Using radio signals to track the Galileo spacecraft as it passed by the icy moon provided insight into how material is arranged inside Europa.

The rest of the interior is bono casino europa moon made of up встревожилась online casino forum usa ошиблась rocky mantle and a metal core. Do "icebergs" really exist on Europa? Close-up pictures of Europa's "chaos" region, obtained by the Galileo spacecraft, show blocks or plates of the surface, several kilometers across, which have moved about relative to one another.

These have informally been referred to as "icebergs," but this term is a bit too suggestive, invoking visions of ice chunks floating in terrestrial polar seas. On Europa it would be extremely difficult and perhaps impossible to melt from a subsurface ocean all the way to the surface. Instead, the chaos areas may represent areas in which Europa's ice shell has partially melted above a large diapir -a blob of relatively warm bono casino europa moon - or an assemblage of diapirs.

Understanding how chaos regions formed would be an important objective for a future mission to Europa. How cold is Europa's surface? Temperature depends not only on distance from the Sun, but also on how reflective the surface is a quality referred to as albedobecause bright surfaces are cooler and dark surfaces are warmer. On Europa, temperatures range from as high as about Kelvin about degrees Fahrenheit in dark material at the moon's equator to as low as about 50 Kelvin degrees Fahrenheit in bright icy patches at the moon's http://burg-hohenzollern.info/mobile-friendly-online-casinos.php. What causes the surface of Europa to look the way it does?

Europa's fractured appearance results from flexing of the moon's surface as it circles Jupiter on its oval-shaped orbit. As the moon's surface elongates toward Jupiter and then relaxes with each orbit, fractures open at the locations where the stress is highest. The fractures open, close, and slide past each other with each orbit.

In the past, the surface appears to have pulled open along some cracks and ridges, allowing huge tracts of warmer icy material to well up into the new gap and creating banded patterns. What causes the differences in brightness and color bono casino europa moon Europa's surface? Most of Europa's surface consists of bright water bono casino europa moon. The bono casino europa moon has reddish non-ice material along bono casino europa moon and within areas where the surface has been deformed, such as the chaos regions.

This reddish substance is associated with briny material. Although brines themselves are colorless, something mixed in is reddish in color, perhaps sulfur. It appears that this material has come from the subsurface, either from the ocean or play online slots for cash pockets of briny material within the ice, and it might redden as a result of exposure to the radiation that affects its surface.

Over time, Europa's surface brightens, possibly by radiation damage or by the deposition of frost. How old is Europa's surface, and how do we know? Galileo spacecraft imaging shows that Europa's surface is sparsely cratered, meaning that the surface is probably young. In other words, the longer a surface lies exposed to space, the more time it has to be hit by impacts, and the more craters it will display.

Moon rocks collected by astronauts during the Apollo missions provide dates for major epochs of cratering and see more of cratering rates in the Solar System. Simulations of comet and asteroid orbits indicate that it is primarily comets that slam into Europa and the other Galilean satellites.

From the modeled and observed numbers of comets near Jupiter today, estimates can be made for the age of Europa's surface.

By this method, planetary scientists estimate that Europa's surface has an average age of about million years. The uncertainty in their measurement indicates that bono casino europa moon age could be between 20 million years and million years, with around 65 million years being the most likely age.

This is extremely young by geological standards, which are often concerned with spans of time hundreds of millions to billions of years long, and suggests that parts of Europa could still be active today. Has Europa always looked the way it does? The bono casino europa moon may have changed its appearance through time.

Features called chaos seem to be the most recent, while those called bands appear to have formed further back in Europa's history. This suggests that the type of activity that deforms Europa's surface has changed over bono casino europa moon. Io's vigorous volcanism provides circumstantial evidence that Europa is also active in the present era.

It should be noted that Europa's visible surface is only bono casino europa moon 65 million years old on average, which is extremely young in geological terms. Because Europa's surface is so young, we can only guess at what it looked like before the most recent period of time.

Is Europa currently active like Enceladus is? The surface of Europa appears to be very fresh and young by geological standards, less than million years old. Because of tidal heating, Europa could have active venting of water vapor, similar to the active vents that spew vapor from the south pole of Enceladus.

However, Europa is much more massive than Enceladus about times more so its gravity would probably prevent vented material from reaching more than a bono casino europa moon tens of kilometers above the surface. If three of Jupiter's moons - Europa, Ganymede and Callisto - are thought to have oceans, why is Europa most significant? Europa's ocean is relatively close to the surface, with active geological bono casino europa moon that might be able to transport into the ocean oxygen and other oxidizing please click for source compounds electron acceptors generated by high-energy particles at the surface, and which could be used by living things.

Water at the bottom of Europa's ocean may be in direct contact with warm rock, supplying hydrogen and other reducing chemicals electron donors.

The process, if it occurs, is similar to the energy cycle that supports life on Earth, with surface chemicals replacing direct energy input from the Sun.

In contrast, Applying for online dealer and Callisto's oceans are around km miles below the surface, and are sandwiched between ice layers. The surfaces of those moons are probably not geologically active today.

This bono casino europa moon that any chemicals generated on their surfaces that might support life cannot be transported down into their oceans. Moreover, chemical nutrients cannot easily enter from the base of their oceans, since the oceans are not in direct contact with rock. Why does Ganymede have its own magnetic field? Like Earth, Ganymede probably has a molten iron core where convection-up-and-down circulation in a fluid portion of a metal core-generates the icy moon's magnetic field.

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